Saturday, June 28, 2014

#LatencyTipOfTheDay: MOST page loads will experience the 99%'lie server response

Yes. MOST of the page view attempts will experience the 99%'lie server response time in modern web applications. You didn't read that wrong.
This simple fact seems to surprise many people. Especially people who spend much of their time looking at pretty lines depicting averages, 50%'lie, 90%'lie or 95%'lies of server response time in feel-good monitoring charts. I am constantly amazed by how little attention is paid to the "higher end" of the percentile spectrum in most application monitoring, benchmarking, and tuning environments. Given the fact that most user interactions will experience those numbers, the adjacent picture comes to mind.

Oh, and in case the message isn't clear, I am also saying that:

- MOST of your users will experience the 99.9%'lie once in ten page view attempts

- MOST of your users will experience the 99.99%'lie once in 100 page view attempts

- More than 5% of your shoppers/visitors/customers will experience the 99.99%'lie once in 10 page view attempts.


So, how does this work: Simple. It's math.


For most (>50%) web pages to possibly avoid experiencing the 99%'ile of server response time, the number of resource requests per page would need to be smaller than 69.

Why 69?

Here is the math:

- The chances of a single resource request avoiding the 99%'lie is 99%. [Duh.]

- The chances on all N resource requests in a page avoiding the 99%'lie is (0.99 ^ N) * 100%.

- (0.99 ^ 69) * 100%  = 49.9%

So with 69 resource requests or more per page, MOST (> 50% of) page loads are going to fail to avoid the 99%'lie. And the users waiting for those pages to fill will experience the 99%'ile for at least some portion of the web page. This is true even if you assume perfect parallelism for all resource requests within a page (non of the requests issued depend on previous requests being answered). Reality is obviously much worse than that, since requests in pages do depend on previous response, but I'll stick with what we can claim for sure.

The percentage of page view attempts that will experience your 99%'lie server response time (even assuming perfect parallelism in all requests) will be bound from below by:

% of page view attempts experiencing 99%'ile >= (1 - (0.99 ^ N)) * 100%

Where N is the number of [resource requests / objects / HTTP GETs] per page.

So, How many server requests are involved in loading a web page? 


The total number of server requests issued by a single page load obviously varies by application, but it appears to be a continually growing number in modern web applications. So to back my claims I went off to the trusty web and looked for data.

According to some older stats collected for a sample of several billions of pages processed as part of Google's crawl and indexing pipeline, the number of HTTP GET requests per page on "Top sites" hit the obvious right answer (42, Duh!) in mid 2010 (see [1]). For "All sites" it was 44. But those tiny numbers are so 2010...

According to other sources, the number of objects per page has been growing steadily, with ~49 around the 2009-2010 timeframe (similar to but larger than Google's estimates), and crossed 100 GETs per page in late 2012 (see [2]). But that was almost two years ago.

And according to a very simple and subjective measurement done with my browser just now, loading this blog's web page (before this posting) involved 119 individual resource requests. So nearly 70% of the page views of this blog are experiencing blogger's 99%'lie.

To further make sure that I'm not smoking something, I hand checked a few common web sites I happened to think of, and none of the request counts came in at 420:

Site # of requests page loads that would
experience the 99%'lie
[(1 - (.99 ^ N)) * 100%]
amazon.com 190 85.2%
kohls.com 204 87.1%
jcrew.com 112 67.6%
saksfifthavenue.com 109 66.5%
-- -- --
nytimes.com 173 82.4%
cnn.com 279 93.9%
-- -- --
twitter.com 87 58.3%
pinterest.com 84 57.0%
facebook.com 178 83.3%
-- -- --
google.com
(yes, that simple noise-free page)
31 26.7%
google.com
search for "http requests per page"
76 53.4%

So yes. There is one web page on this list for which most page loads will not experience the 99%'lie. "Only" 1/4 of visits to google.com's clean and plain home page will see that percentile. But if you actually use google search for something, you are back on my side of the boat....

What the ^%&*! are people spending their time looking at?

Given these simple facts, I am constantly amazed by the number of people I meet who never look at numbers above the 95%'ile, and spend most of their attention of medians or averages. Even if we temporarily ignore the fact that the 95%'lie is irrelevant (as in too optimistic) for more than half of your page views, there is less than a 3% chance of modern web app page view avoiding the 95%'ile of server response time. This means that the 90%'lie, 75%'lie, median, and [usually] the average are completely irrelevant to 97% of your page views.

So please, Wake Up! Start looking at the right end of the percentile spectrum...

References:


[1] Sreeram Ramachandran: "Web metrics: Size and number of resources", May 2010.
[2] "Average Number of Web Page Objects Breaks 100", Nov 2012


Discussion Note: 


It's been noted by a few people that these calculations assume that there is no strong time-correlation of bad or good result. This is absolutely true. The calculations I use are valid if every request has the same chance of experiencing a larger-than-percetile-X result regardless of what previous results have seen. A strong time correlation would decrease the number of pages that would see worse-than-percentile-X results (down to a theoretical X% in theoretically perfect "all responses in a given page are either above or below the X%'lie" situations). Similarly, a strong time anti-correlation (e.g. a repeated pattern going through the full range of response times values every 100 responses) will increase the number of pages that would see a worse-than-percentile-X result, up to a theoretical 100%.

So in reality, my statement of "most" (and the 99.3% computed for cnn.com above) may be slightly exaggerated. Maybe instead of >50% of your page views seeing the 99%'lie, it's "only" 20% of page views that really are that bad... ;-)

Without time-correlation (or anti-correlation) information, the best you can do is act on the basic information at hand. And the only thing we know about a given X %'ile in most systems (on its own, with no other measured information about correlative behavior) is that the chances of seeing a number above it is (100%-X).

78 comments:

  1. I strongly agree that when testing you should look at the 99%tile even to the point of ignoring the 50%. The 50%tile can give you an idea of how much you could improve e.g. is it likely to be quick wins (if 99%tile >> 4x 50%tile) or do you have to speed up all the code.

    99%tile is just the start, you have to have a realistic peak load and look at 99.9% and even worst case timings after this step 1.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
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  2. This compounds when you look at user activity over an entire session -- with for example 5/10/20 page impressions in a session -- it becomes even worse - the odds are very high that while a user is browsing your site they will hit the 99.9.

    I think to give a fairer assessment you need to factor in that not all of your resources come from the same location, assuming you are talking about a website. For example, static content will often come from a CDN which hopefully has a much lower 100% than your app server. This pushes out the likelihood of a user hitting a 99.9% load time quite a bit.

    Nonetheless the problem still exists and I find it a very important point when talking to customers about the *real experience* versus *meeting the requirements*.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yup. the session or daily experience is compounded. And the fact that most people don't look at numbers above the 95% or 99% literally means that they are looking at the data of their best 3%-5% user experience, and ignoring the rest.

      Yes. A page is served by many servers, and the 99%'ile (cross all of them is what should/would be used in this math). The "CDNs are good" arguments come up a lot, but they basically cancel out. CDNs are not special, and their 99.99%'lie stinks just as bad as everyone else's. Try to get a CDN to report on something other than median, 95%'lie, and maybe 99%'lie, and you'll find out very quickly that they live in the same world as the rest of us... Mostly because they'll either push back or admit to not even looking at the numbers.

      As you may have noticed, I'm trying to discredit[one by one] the commonly used metrics people watch on feel-good "monitoring" dashboards. Average is meaningless. Medians are practically never experienced by anyone. 95%'lie cover the best 3%-5%, and the 99%'lie describes only the better half.

      Why am I doing this? Because I truly believe that unless you are actually measure and closely watch numbers with several 9s in them. 99.9% is an ok entry-level starting point, but 99.99% and higher are absolutely needed for anyone that care about what users that actually use their application more than a couple of minutes per day.

      The math is simple: Each actual user will be regularly experiencing the worst of 10s of thousands of "server response times" each day. Ignoring (as in not even bothering to measure) the 99.99%'lie in that reality, and not monitoring the max times (for which there is no technical excuse, since they are trivial to measure) is what the picture at the top of this blog is all about.

      Delete
  3. Hi.

    Are you trying to say "ninety nine percent lie" or "ninety nine percentile" ? because most of your spellings say "lie" and I have never heard of a "ninety nine percent lie" when it comes to web stuff...

    ReplyDelete
  4. Hello Gil,

    On the 100-200 resources of these sites, you will typically find 95-99% of static resources (images, css, js, fonts, ...) and a handful of real "server response" (main document, few ajax calls). Static resources should be cached in the CDN and therefore the server time will only be for origin requests.

    Assuming 1 main document, a couple of ajax requests, using your math, it will give "only" 5% (1 - 0.99 ^ 5) of affected users by the 99th percentile on the server.

    You sill need to actively monitor your CDN 99th percentile though ;)

    I short, I think the 99th percentile on the server is more than a "feel good" indicator (unless you are monitoring requests that should never have reached the origin server). Make sense ?

    ReplyDelete
  5. It’s a very informative and helpful article, thank you for sharing!

    Web Designer

    ReplyDelete
  6. I recommend a small insertion making it clear that this is true because the requests are being made in parallel so your total time is a function of the max of service times.

    Because I just had a discussion with someone who tried to apply your results to a system that hands off processing from service to service in series.

    And when you add a collection of random variables, eg prices of the various stocks in your portfolio, you get a "Portfolio Effect" -- total values are closer to mean, not more extreme.

    The probability the other n-1 services are NOT hitting their 99%-ile time is 1 - (.01 ^ [n-1]), for 69 services, that's a near certainty. And each of those services are saving time compared to their own 99%-ile. Offsetting the total to make it So there is a portfolio effect.

    The central idea that makes this post basically true even when in series is that the top 1%-ile performance is typically so much higher than norm that it is unlikely to be measurably offset by savings elsewhere. But I am unsure.

    In any case, a couple of words about the requests being simultaneous would have saved my co worker some confusion.

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  33. Happiness is all i see now, i was herpes sicker for 6 years but i thank God for directing my footsteps to Dr Emu, he gave me instructions and i followed and in 2 weeks i was completely cured using his medicine, I am now Herpes Negative Contact Dr Emu for more information, He also has other cure to other ailment, HIV AIDS, CANCER, DIABETES, HEART DISEASE, HEPATITIS B/C And also restore broken relationships such as Ex HUSBAND, Ex WIFE, BROKEN MARRIAGES, Any kind of Problem in any relationship can be restore back in 24hours, Just Email: emutemple@gmail.com Whatsapp or call: +2347012841542

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  36. God bless Dr Ebacol for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of HERPES since 2018 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied i needed to get the HERPES out of my system,I searched out some possible cure for HERPES i saw a comment about Dr Ebacol, how he cured HERPES,DIABETES,HIV,and CANCER with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 14 days later i was cured from HERPES, Dr Ebacol truly you are great, do you need his help also? Why don’t you contact him through his EMAIL:    drebacolherbalhome1@gmail.com  call or whatsApp him on +2348159042641

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  43. Good news this is to everyone out there with different health challenges, as I know there are still a lot of people suffering from different health issues and are therefore looking for solutions. I bring you Good news. There is a man called Dr ehiaguna a herbal practitioner who helped cure me from HSV (2), i had suffered from this diseases for the past 5 years and i have spent so much money trying to survive from it. I got my healing by taking the herbal medicine Dr ehiaguna sent to me to drink for about 14 days . 3 days after completion of the dosage, I went for a medical checkup and I was tested free from HSV. all thanks to God for leading me to Dr ehiaguna who was able to cure me completely from this deadly diseases, I’m sharing this so that other people can know of this great healer called Dr ehiaguna because I got to know him through elizabeth who he cured from HIV. I was made to understand that he can cure several other deadly diseases and infections. Don’t die in ignorance or silent and don’t let that illness take your life. Contact Dr ehiaguna through his email  drehiaguna@gmail.com You can also whatsapp/call him on:+2348073908953 . Visit his website  https://effectiveherbalcurehome.blogspot.com/   He cure all forms of disease {1}HIV/AIDS {2}DIABETES {3}EPILEPSY {4} BLOOD CANCER {5} HPV {6} BRAIN TUMOR {7} HEPATITIS {8}COPD{9} SICKLE AND ANAEMIA.etc Be kind enough to share as you received.  

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  46. Here is  my testimony on how I was cured of HIV by Dr Akhigbe,with his natural herbal medicine.  on a regular basis in efforts to help others when I could. As you may know, each donation is tested.  Well, on July 6th I had a meeting with a Red Cross representative and was told that I had HIV. “What went through your mind when you heard that "Rose" Good question reader! To be honest, I thought my life was over, that I would ever find love, get married, have children or anything normal. Lucky for me I have an amazing support system.  My family supported me then I never thought that I was invincible to STD s or pregnancy or anything else parents warn their kids about. I just didn’t think about it. I was in a monogamous relationship and thought that I asked the right questions.  We even talked about marriage Scary.  During that time I was in college and donated blood on a re as well. who helped me in search of cure through the media.there we saw a good testimony of sister 'Kate' about the good work of Dr Akhigbe natural herbal medicine cure.then I copied his email address and contacted him. A good herbalist doctor with a good heart, he is kind, loving and caring. He replied back to my message and told me what to do. After a week the doctor sent me my herbal medicine and instructed me how to take it.Yes it worked very well, after drinking it I went to the hospital for another test and everything turned negative. What a wonderful testimony I can never forget in my life. Dr Akhigbe is a man who gave me a life to live happily forever so all I want you all to believe and know that cure of HIV is real and herbs is a powerful medicine and it works and heals.  Dr Akhigbe also used his herbal medicine to cure diseases like:   HERPES, DIABETES, SCABIES, HEPATITIS A/B, STROKE, CANCER, ALS, TUBERCULOSIS, ASTHMA, PENIS ENLARGEMENT, MALARIA, LUPUS, LIVER CIRRHOSIS, DEPRESSION, HIV/AIDS, EPILEPSY, BACTERIAL, DIARRHEA, HEART DISEASES, HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, PARKINSON'S, ALZHEIMER, COLD URTICARIA, HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS,INSOMNIA,  BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS, SCHIZOPHRENIA, JOINT PAIN, STOMACH PAIN, CHROME DISEASES, CHLAMYDIA, INSOMNIA HEARTBURN, ,  THYROID, MAR BURG DISEASES, MENINGITIS, ARTHRITIS, BODY WEAK, SMALLPOX, DENGUE, FEVER, CURBS, CHANCRE, AND OTHERS VARIOUS DISEASES/ VIRUS.   You are there and you find yourself in any of these situations, kindly contact Dr Akhigbe now to help you get rid of it. Here is his email address:
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  47. I was in severe ribs and stomach pain at about this time last year. And I went to the hospital for treatment and was diagnosed for CHRONIC HEPATITIS B I was told it has no cure and i was so devastated because all hope seems to be lost, some drugs was given me to slowdown the viral load, and it got worse after sometime. I came across Dr. Iyabiye’s recommendation online while studying about the disease, and then I reach out to him just to try but I was taken by surprise. I got completely cured, all the pains were gone and I went back to the hospital for another test and I was tested negative to the disease. Here is the doctor’s contact if interested: iyabiyehealinghome@gmail.com (+234-815-857-7300)

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  49. I'm 30 years old female I tested genital herpes (HSV1-2) positive in 2002. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. I have try different kinds of drugs and treatment by the medical doctors all to know was avail. Six months ago I was desperately online searching for a helpful remedies for genital herpes (HSV1-2) cure, which i come across some helpful remedies on how Dr ehiaguna have help so many people in curing genital herpes (HSV1-2) with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in the world who can cure herpes completely. As of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol Via drehiaguna@gmail.com and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged by the medical doctors. There is a cure for HSV with the help of herbs and roots kindly contact him for more information Via drehiaguna@gmail.com or Whatsapp him on +2348073908953 . visit his website https://effectiveherbalcurehome.blogspot.com/ He is capable of curing HIV/AIDS, HERPES, HPV, HSV1&2, CANCER of all kinds, DIABETES and so many other infections.

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  53. I saw a health promotion on a herbalist from Africa who prepares herbal medicines to cure all sorts of diseases including HERPES VIRUS and many others sickness, I first doubted It was not true but decided to meet him on. Dr.chalaherbalhome@gmail.com or https://
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  54. HERBAL DR EMU WHO PREPARE HERBAL MEDICINE TO CURE ALL KINDS OF DISEASES INCLUDING HERPES DISEASE.   
     I have been battling this Herpes disease for almost 3 years now....I tried all possible means to get cure from my Herpes Disease but all to be in vain until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal Dr Emu who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including Herpes Disease, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try...when i contact Dr Emu via his email (emutemple@gmail.com)  write him and reply me explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 3/4 working days through DHL Delivery and I took it according to the way Dr Emu instructed, I was so happy after 2 week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative...Herpes patients should also get in touch with this herbalist Dr Emu to get rid of these Herpes Virus forever his whatsapp number +2347012841542. Website: https://emutemple.wordpress.com/ 

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  56. Can't still believe that i got cured from Genital Herpes through herbal treatment from Dr Ebhota who I met through the internet, I actually couldn't believe it at first because it sounded impossible to me knowing how far I have gone just to get rid of it. Dr Ebhota send me his medicine which I took as instructed and here I am living a happy life once again, a big thanks to Dr Ebhota , I am sure there are many herbal doctors out there but Dr Ebhota did it for me, contact him drebhotasolution@gmail.com , also call or whatsApp him on +2348089535482

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  57. All thanks to Dr.chala for helping me with his herbs to cure my (HERPES VIRUS) right now everything is fine thank God for everything, doctor Chala you are the best i ever meet he is real and can be trusted and also he is the best traditional herbal doctor in West African Nigeria you can email him dr.chalaherbalhome@gmail.com he can also cure (1} HIV And AIDS (2) HPV (3) Diabetes (4) Hepatitis (5) Vitiligo (6) Blood Cancer (7)) Acid reflux (8) STD {9} Fibroids (10) ALS {11} Thyroid {12} Blood pressure, to no more aboutDr chala and his product visit his website on http://drchalaherbalhome.godaddysites.com or. https://mywa.link/dr.chalaherbalhome

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  58. WHAT A GREAT MIRACLE THAT I HAVE EVER SEE IN MY LIFE. My names are Clara David I’m a citizen of USA, My younger sister was sicking of breast cancer and her name is Sandra David I and my family have taking her to all kind of hospital in USA still yet no good result. I decided to search for cancer cure so that was how I found a lady called Peter Lizzy. She was testifying  to the world about the goodness of a herbal man who has the roots and herbs to cure all kinds of disease and the herbal man's email was there. So I decided to contact the herbal man @herbalist_sakura for my younger sister's help to cure her breast cancer. I contacted him and told him my problem he told me that I should not worry that my sister cancer will be cure, he told me that there is a medicine that he is going to give me that I will cook it and give it to my sister to drink for one week, so I ask how can I receive the cure that I am in USA, he told me That I will pay for the delivery service. The courier service can transport it to me so he told me the amount I will pay, so my dad paid for the delivery fee. two days later I receive the cure from the courier service so I used it as the herbal man instructed me to, before the week complete my sister cancer was healed and it was like a dream to me not knowing that it was physical I and my family were very happy about the miracle of Doctor so my dad wanted to pay him 5 million us dollars the herbal man did not accept the offer from my dad, but I don't know why he didn't accept the offer, he only say that I should tell the world about him and his miracle he perform so am now here to tell the world about him if you or your relative is having any kind of disease that you can't get from the hospital please contact dr.sakuraspellalter@gmail.com or WhatsApp him +2348110114739  you can follow him up on Instagram @herbalist_sakura visit his website https://drsakurahealthclinic.wixsite.com/website OR https://sites.google.com/view/herbalistsakura for the cure, he will help you out with the problem. And if you need more information about the doctor you can mail me    davidclara223@gmail.com

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